音乐家巴赫

Johann Sebastian Bach

(1685.03.31 ~ 1750.06.28)

 

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Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity. Although he introduced no new forms, he enriched the prevailing German style with a robust contrapuntal technique, an unrivalled control of harmonic and motivic organisation in composition for diverse instrumentation, and the adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad, particularly Italy and France.

Revered for their intellectual depth, technical command and artistic beauty, Bach's works include the Brandenburg concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Partitas, the Well-Tempered Clavier, the Mass in B Minor, the St. Matthew Passion, the St. John Passion, the Magnificat, The Musical Offering, The Art of Fugue, the English Suites, the French Suites, the Sonatas and Partitas for violin solo, the Cello Suites, more than 200 surviving cantatas, and a similar number of organ works, including the celebrated Toccata and Fugue in D Minor.

While Bach's fame as an organist was great during his lifetime, he was not particularly well-known as a composer. His adherence to Baroque forms and contrapuntal style was considered "old-fashioned" by his contemporaries, especially late in his career when the musical fashion tended towards Rococo and later Classical styles. A revival of interest and performances of his music began early in the 19th century, and he is now widely considered to be one of the greatest composers in the Western tradition.

 

约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫巴洛克时期的德国作曲家,杰出的管风琴小提琴大键琴演奏家。巴赫被普遍认为是音乐史上最重要的作曲家之一,并被尊称为“西方‘现代音乐’之父”,也是西方文化史上最重要的人物之一。

巴赫出生于德国中部图林根州小城艾森纳赫的一个音乐世家,在有生之年是一位著名的宫廷乐长,在德国莱比锡圣托马斯教堂度过了一生中的绝大多数时间,同作曲家韩德尔泰勒曼齐名。

尽管他的音乐并没有开创新风格,但他的创作使用了丰富的德国的音乐风格和娴熟的复调技巧。他的音乐集成了巴洛克音乐风格的精华。但由于音乐的风尚迅速转向为洛可可和古典主义风格,巴赫的复调音乐音乐被视为陈腐之物,其成就长时间未得到应有的评价,仅仅作为管风琴演奏家而闻名。虽然莫扎特贝多芬等伟大作曲家均对巴赫的作品崇拜有加,但直到浪漫主义时代,作曲家舒曼莱比锡的图书馆中发现了巴赫的受难曲,并且由作曲家门德尔颂在音乐会上演奏,才震惊音乐界。此后门德尔颂对他的作品进行了发掘、整理和推广,经过几代音乐家的共同努力,巴赫逐渐获得了今天的崇高地位。在西方音乐史上巴赫Bach,贝多芬Beethoven和布拉姆斯Brahms被尊称为德国“3B”。