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基督教,或称基督宗教,是一个一神论的宗教,指所有相信耶稣基督为救主的教会。它在中国古代被称为景教,与佛教、伊斯兰教并称为世界叁大宗教。虽然耶稣基督所建立的是一个基督教会,但基督教在历史进程中却分化为许多派别,主要有天主教、东正教、新教叁大派别,以及其他一些影响较小的派别。在近现代中文中,基督教往往指基督新教众多派别的统称。现时估计共有15亿至21亿的人是信仰基督宗教,占世界总人口33%。

圣经

基督教基本经典是以《旧约全书》和《新约全书》两大部分构成的《圣经》。旧约全书的内容基本上与犹太教的《希伯来圣经》没有太大分别,可是在书卷的分类上,与犹太教的分类有所不同,因此希伯来圣经和基督宗教的旧约圣经的书卷数目并不相同。而基督新教则是经斟酌後,未采纳《希伯来圣经》中的6卷经文,这6卷经文的希伯来文原文几已全部失传,只留下很少很少的残卷,希腊语译本仍完整,少数几卷则原本就是用希腊文写成。这六卷经书,在圣公会被归入次经的类别。

教义

 * 基督教信仰圣父、圣子、圣灵(天主教称为圣神)叁位一体的上帝(天主教称为天主):基督徒相信上帝是叁位一体:圣父是万有之源造物之主、圣子是太初之道而降世为人的耶稣基督、圣灵受圣父之差遣运行於万有之中,更受圣父及圣子之差遣而运行於教会之中。但这叁者仍是同一位上帝,而非叁个上帝。

* 创造:基督教相信上帝创造了宇宙(时间和空间)万物,包括人类的始祖。

* 罪:亚当与夏娃在伊甸园中违逆上帝出於爱的命令,偷吃禁果,而获得自己的“智慧”,从此与上帝的生命源头隔绝,致使罪恶与魔鬼纒身,而病痛与死亡则为必然的结局。後世人皆为 此两人的後裔,生而具有原罪,加上自身所犯的罪,走上灭亡之路。

* 基督救赎:人生的希望在於信耶稣基督为童贞女所生,信耶稣基督为主,信祂在十字架上为罪人钉死,并祂在叁日後从死里复活,使相信祂的人,可以接受祂的宝血洗净信一切罪孽,并得到 上帝所赐的、能胜过魔鬼与死亡的、永远的生命。

* 灵魂与永生:人有灵魂。基督徒因爲接受了耶稣基督的救恩,满身的罪孽已被基督耶稣钉在十字架上宝雪洗净,故此在上帝的面前被称为义人,不再被定罪。而不相信上帝,不接受基督救恩,有罪的人,则会下地狱,与永生的上帝永远隔绝,受火湖之刑罚。基督教所相信的是「因信称义」,不是因爲行爲得救。其相信任何人皆有罪,不可因爲人做了多少善行而得救。想得救,就必须相信耶稣基督,接受基督耶稣的救恩。
 

  Christianity (from the word Xριστός "Christ") is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in the New Testament.

Adherents of Christianity, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (the part of scripture common to Christianity and Judaism). The majority of orthodox Christian theology believe that Jesus suffered, died, and was resurrected to bring about salvation from sin. They further maintain that Jesus ascended into heaven, and most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans, living and dead, and grant immortality to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life, and both the revealer and physical incarnation of God. Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gospel ("good news") and hence refer to the earliest written accounts of his ministry as gospels.

Like Judaism and Islam, Christianity is classified as an Abrahamic religion. Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the eastern Mediterranean, quickly grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the 4th century had become the dominant religion within the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a (sometimes large) religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas and the rest of the world.

Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization at least since the 4th century. As of the early 21st century, Christianity has between 1.5 billion and 2.1 billion adherents, representing about a quarter to a third of the world's population and is the world's largest religion.

Creeds

Creeds (from Latin credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. They began as baptismal formulas and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the fourth and fifth centuries to become statements of faith.

The Apostles Creed (Symbolum Apostolorum) was developed between the second and ninth centuries. It is the most popular creed used in worship by Western Christians. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Since the Apostles Creed is still unaffected by the later Christological divisions, its statement of the articles of Christian faith remain largely acceptable to most Christian denominations:

bulletbelief in God the Father,  God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit
bulletthe death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ
bulletthe holiness of the Church and the communion of saints
bulletChrist's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful.

The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the Council of Ephesus in 431.

The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.

The Athanasian Creed, received in the western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."

Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above. A minority of Protestants, notably Restorationists, a movement formed in the wake of the Second Great Awakening in the 19th century United States, oppose the use of creeds.